Pre Civil War

Famous Abolitionist

Nat turner led a revolt against plantation owners in Virginia.

In 1831, Nat Turner and his small band of fellow slaves led a rebellion in
Southampton County, Virginia. For two days, they went from farm to farm and killed nearly 60 white men, women, and children from slaveowning families. Turner hid in the woods for six weeks before he was finally caught.

Harriet Tubman helped over 300 slaves escape on the Underground Railroad

Harriet Tubman escaped from slavery in Maryland in 1849. She returned to the South many times and helped over 300 other slaves gain their freedom. Harriet Tubman supported a secret route that helped enslaved people escape to the North. The secret route that the escaped slaves took became known as the Underground Railroad. Escaped slaves hid during the day and traveled by night. They had to avoid patrols that were looking for runaway slaves. People who showed slaves the way to freedom were called Conductors.

John Brown led a raid on the United States Armory (Arsenal) at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.

In 1859, an abolitionist named John Brown led a raid on the United States Armory (Arsenal) at
Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He planned to distribute the weapons stored there and start a slave rebellion. He was unsuccessful.

Because of economic differences between the North and South, they were unable to resolve their conflicts and the South seceded from the United States of America.

Terms to Know
• secede: to withdraw or break away from a group or organization
• abolitionist: a person who is against the practice of slavery
• revolt: uprising against (government)
• enslaved: people who were considered property of their owners/had no
civil rights

Some Issues that Divided the United States after the American Revolution
and before the Civil War

The economy in the northern states was more industrialized using machines,
while in the southern region, it was agricultural and relied more on slave labor.

The northern states (industrialized/factories) wanted any new state created from
western territories to become a free state, while the southern states
(agricultural/farming) wanted any new state in the western territories to become
a slave state.